Difference between revisions of "Laeral"
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Latest revision as of 14:55, 12 June 2019
|Allied Provinces of Laeral|
Anthem: The Laeralite's Song
Laeral (in light blue) in the Eastern portion of Hespia, in the IDU
|Official languages||French, Min Chinese|
|Recognised national languages||English|
|Ethnic groups (2010)||38% Mixed-Race|
|Government||Federal Semi-presidential Republic|
• Prime Minister
• First Allied Provinces of Laeral
• Republic of Laeral
• Second Allied Provinces of Laeral
|490,499 km2 (189,383 sq mi)|
• 2017 estimate
• 2015 census
|161.5/km2 (418.3/sq mi)|
|Currency||Laeralian Mark (LRM)|
|Drives on the||right|
The Allied Provinces of Laeral, commonly called Laeral, is a federal semi-presidential democracy in the continent of Hespia in the International Democratic Union. It is bordered by Bears Armed and Malabra to the west and by High Fells and Skoden to the north. Laeral covers 1.71 million square kilometers, and is composed of 33 provinces. Laeral is best known internationally for its progressive outlook and policies, extensive cultural influence, and growing political might. Laeral has a long history of social tolerance, dating from centuries of racial division.
Laeral has only become an influential nation recently, being elected as World Assembly Delegate of the International Democratic Union in 2017. It is a major tourist destination, where both traditional industries such as fishing and tea production coexist with modernity. The government and populace are known for their social tolerance, but tradition continues to play a major role in the lives of many Laeralites. Culturally, Laeral shows both its French heritage as well as the culture of its native Rén peoples. This culture has become well-known internationally through popular cultural exports such as film.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Environment
- 5 Demographics
- 6 Language
- 7 Religion
- 8 Government
- 9 Foreign Relations and Military
- 10 Economy
- 11 Culture
Laeral is pronounced Lay-ruhl, and likely comes from the Old Laeralian word laer, likely meaning 'silk'. It is combined with the suffix 'al', meaning 'land of' or 'territory of'. An alternate etymology posits that the term comes from "lehwal", or 'river-dweller'. The term is first recorded in the 1500s; previously, the term "Liuguo" was used. The former etymology is used for Laeral's name in Chinese, 絲綢之鄉, meaning 'silk country'.
The standard way to refer to a citizen of Laeral is as a "Laeralite." The term 'Laeralian' is archaic and now rarely used. Two terms often used to refer to people in Laeral are 'Rén' (Ren) and 'Arrivée' (Arrivay, or Arrivee). These are racial terms used in Laeral. The former refers to the native Laeralians, of Asian descent. The latter refers to those descended from the French who colonized the nation.
Humans likely arrived in modern-day Laeral in the paleolithic period, as evidence has been found of cave dwellings with artifacts dating back to that time. Laeral was inhabited by scattered nomadic tribes of Asian descent until around the 7th century BCE, when the first permanent agricultural settlements were developed. Cultivated grains have been found dating to that time. During this time, several coastal cities began to develop agriculture, as well as settlements along the Laer River, but the majority of the population could be classified as hunter-gatherers. These coastal cities were the places where writing and toolmaking first developed, and are the birthplaces of Laeralian civilization. It was around the year 400 BCE when Laeral was first unified, under the Nan Dynasty, which in fact only controlled the coastal areas of Laeral. They were succeeded by the Gan dynasty around 100 BCE. They were followed by several other dynasties, including the Liu Dynasty (100 BCE-300 CE), which was known for its highly developed civil service, the Gao Dynasty (300 CE-500 CE), known for its relative stability and promotion of culture, the Bei Dynasty (500-600 CE), which was unstable and chaotic, and others.
Gunpowder and paper were both discovered around the same time in the 10th century CE, ushering in a new era in both warfare and culture. At this time, the city of Enelwain, considered the birthplace of technology in Laeral, became a center of learning and knowledge, and home of many wonders such as the Great Library of Enelwain. Arts and culture were sponsored by the ruling Bei dynasty. Around 980, the city of Enelwain was devastated by a fire and never rebuilt.
Falling Leaves Period and the Sen Dynasty
During the Falling Leaves period, an increasing population meant that the city-states were forced to expand and take over weaker rivals. Many warlords created pocket empires during this time, only to see them fall apart within years. At this time, both gunpowder weapons and bladed weapons proliferated, resulting in a land in chaos as warlords and their followers battled for territory. Warriors wandered the countryside, looking for plunder and a lord to serve under. However, one warlord, the famous Seliun I, united Laeral through military might, diplomatic skill, and strategic marriages. The epic saga of his dynasty, the Sen Dynasty, is told in the classic Laeralian work of literature, The Cycle of Ascendancy. Those kings had many wars with the Guanyin Empire, in modern-day High Fells, who had become similarly unified around the same time. While Seliun and his descendants were not especially gifted with kingly qualities, they often were able to prop up their respective regimes by cultivating a body of trusted advisers. However, the Sen Dynasty fell apart sometime around 1430, when Sei II's incompetent leadership and backstabbing advisors led to a disastrous war with the Guanyin Empire, a militaristic kingdom ruling over modern-day High Fells. Another work of Laeralian classic literature, The Years of Woe, tells of loyal Sen military commander Han Guiying's attempt to resist the Guanyin invasion and defend Laeralian sovereignty. However, while he was able to repel the invaders successfully, Laeral enjoyed only a decade or so of freedom, as the Guanyin underwent a period of political turmoil, which eventually resulted in a new Guanyin dynasty establishing itself and taking over Laeral.
At one point, all of Laeral was under the control of the Fellsians. They ruled Laeral for several generations with an iron fist, while resistance groups were quietly formed and plans of revolution quietly made. The city of Anjian, the Sen capital, was razed. This period of time, known is Laeral as the 'Time of Sacrifice' still impacts the Laeralian national consciousness today. Dozens of resistance groups formed, plotting to overthrow Fellsian rule. Their leader was Shei Wu, a former warlord who assembled a group of secret societies to oppose the Fellsian occupation. This coalition consisted of many former enemies, who cooperated to defeat Fellsian forces. Laeral ultimately threw off the Fellsian rule, and enjoyed freedom for several centuries. Shei Wu established himself as an Emperor, and created the imperial capital at Lanxiu, in modern day Corday. He and his descendants embarked upon a series of reforms, ultimately establishing a powerful central government, a bureaucracy, and allowing many innovations to spread quickly throughout Laeral. The Shei Dynasty cracked down on the power of warlords, and brought stability to Laeral. This time is often thought of as the 'golden age' of Laeral, when Laeral's internal organization, stability, and technological advancement were far ahead of those of it's neighbors.
First Encounters With Colonialism
In 1689, Portuguese arrived in Laeral Bay, and quickly established a trading post where they traded muskets, beads, and advanced equipment such as spyglasses for textiles, beads, and pottery. This marked Laeral's first contact with Europeans. This trading post, however, run by a Portuguese corporation, was unprofitable, and the several hundred people residing at the trading post never really explored the interior of the nation. Following a malaria outbreak, they abandoned the trading post and departed. The muskets, in particular, that were provided were a curiosity, but proved ineffective during conflicts due to lack of ammunition and a long reload time. The English arrived around 1724, but their outposts never really had an impact on Laeral's interior. At this point, Laeral was under the rule of Emperor Tei, a member of the Peiguo Dynasty, originally high-ranking advisers to Shei Wu who had seized power during a civil war. In 1734, a fleet of the Dutch East India Company arrived off Laeral's southern coast, and drove off the English. Their settlement remained for decades, trading with the Laeralites.
The modern nation of Laeral was founded in 1703 along with present-day High Fells as a French colony governed by French nobles. With around 5800 supporters, forces under the Duc d'Tesse conquered the area around the coast. The area was home to thousands of natives, who were largely forced to retreat away from the French due to military defeat and disease. Many died, and many abuses and massacres were committed. This was a time of great change in Laeral, as ruling elements of Laeralian society were violently forced into submission before foreign conquerors. The Duc d'Tesse set himself up as Duc Jean-Baptiste I and ruled the land as the Duchy of Haute Fells.
After razing the imperial capital, he ordered the creation of the city of Laeralsford to serve as the new capital, as well as establishing four immense palaces around the country, each of which his court would spend one season a year at. These remain major historical sites, although it is said that the construction of these palaces was only accomplished by slave labor and crippling taxation. He introduced European technology, but also treated the natives poorly, instituting forced agricultural labor and high tithes. Duc Jean-Baptiste I was a canny ruler, playing off his political opponents against one another. He was assassinated in 1732.
His successors ruled as Dukes, until the Revolution. Their reign was characterized by a tiny minority presiding over the subjugation of the Laeralian people and the theft of Laeralian heritage. During the French Revolution of 1789, Laeral experienced a population boost, as emigre nobles and monarchists fled to the Duchy, where they hoped to muster an army to retake France. However, the Duc d'Tesse at the time, Louis-Philippe, died in 1809. He left a son and three daughters. Upon hearing of the Duc's death, the eldest daughter, Marie-Therese, knowing that she would not have been allowed to take the throne, moved to consolidate power.
By winning the support of the military, she had her brother executed, and restructured the government. She would remain a forward-thinking ruler for 27 years. She created a legislature, known as the National Assembly, reduced the power of the individual nobles, and also supported equality between the European settlers and the Rén peoples. She also created the city of Queensgrace, in modern-day High Fells, to serve as the new capital. Her regime was also noted for the establishment of many grain storage facilities located around the country to guard against famine.
Upon her 1836 death, her daughter, Louise, a hard-line conservative, took the throne as Duchesse Louise I. She was unpopular among the native peoples as well as among the middle-class for her rigid monarchism, traditionalism, and her anti-Enlightenment views. There was an attempted revolt in 1844, the Blue Cockade Revolt, which was brutally suppressed. As she became gravely ill in 1848 due to mysterious reasons, intellectuals, anarchists, liberals, and a number of others convened secretly in the coastal city of Althea to discuss. Among them were the future founders of Laeral. This meeting was called the Provisional Assembly, and was governed by a Provisional Council of 12 members, all of whom would be remembered in Laeral as the 'Founders'.
After weeks of discussion, they ultimately decided that her daughter, Louise II, would be even worse for the nation than her mother, and after many months of discussion, ultimately decided to rebel in order to form a democracy. This day, July 17th, 1848, is remembered as Laeral's Founding Day and is celebrated annually. They quickly assigned leaders to a resistance group in each province, arranged to purchase weapons and supplies, and named Emil Lematre as leader of the newly founded Free Laeralian Army. They also released the Binding Charter, an agreement that resistance groups would put aside their differences in order to defeat the royalists.
The Laeralian War of Independence initially began with rebel triumphs. However, the poor training and disunity of rebel forces allowed Fellsian troops to drive them back, inflicting losses on the rebels. Sensing defeat, rebel general Georges Emmanuel Lematre used a large loan from Dutch banks to reorganize the scattered rebel groups into a single army, the Free Laeralian Army. In 1855, the High Fellsian sused for peace, establishing Laeral as an independent nation.
First Allied Provinces of Laeral
Laeral was founded as a sovereign nation practically cutting High Fells off from the ocean, leaving High Fells with a grudge against Laeral and another 35 years of absolute monarchy. These conditions were agreed upon in the 1855 Treaty of Laeralsford, signed in that city. As part of the Treaty, Laeral was obligated to choose their first Prime Minister as a person of "noble birth and good breeding". While the High Fellsians had intended that this clause would force the Laeralians to select a pro-High Fells leader, although they had to make concessions in order to do so. After the treaty was signed, Laeral quickly established a constitution, known as the Binding Charter, which was ratified in 1858. It established a weak central government consisting of an Assembly of Commons, which was elected using a first-past-the-post system from districts within each province, and a General Assembly, which would have two members from each province appointed by the provincial government. The Assembly of Commons would select a Prime Minister, who would be the chief executive.
When it became time for Laeral to select it's first Prime Minister, Adrienne Lematre revealed that she was illegitimately related to the High Fellsian royal line, and was appointed Prime Minister in a Provisional Assembly vote, and proceeded to symbolically lead the country for a week before turning over power to her husband, Georges Emmanuel Lematre. His acts included eliminating many immigration restrictions and promoting Laeral's international relations. Laeral's capital was established at Althea.
Laeral's first major test came during the Outbreak of 1861, as cholera spread throughout Laeral. Although thousands died, the new nation largely avoided chaos through the government's skillful handling of the crisis. Georges Lematre also implemented nationwide paper currency in 1865. Prior to this, individual provinces issued their own currency. In 1866, Georges Lematre's term came to an end and he peacefully stepped down in favor of Jean-Paul Gauvain, the third Prime Minister. Several other Founders succeeded him as Prime Minister. There was a famine in 1872, which led to many farmers moving to Laeralian cities in search of jobs and food. Although the government tried to reduce the problem, starvation was a constant problem in Laeral for decades. In 1881, the Bank of Laeral was established in order to unify the production of paper money, which had been established on a nationwide basis in 1865.
In 1887, the government launched the National Modernization Initiative, a ten-year program designed to modernize Laeral's industries. This program, championed by Prime Minister Courres, was controversial for putting many small businesses in dire financial straits, as well as leading to alleged abuses and corruption. In 1894, Laeral's capital was moved to Laeralsford following a convoluted backroom deal. This was followed by the abolition of the Bank of Laeral in 1899 by Prime Minister Saulignac. The following years saw a swift backlash against such dealing, as well as the NMI, during the so-called Worker's Movement. This worker's rights movement, championed by numerous unions, led to violent protests and riots. This movement, although ultimately falling apart due to internal dissension by 1903, was succeeded by the Progressive Movement, which was ultimately able to enact numerous meaningful changes in Laeralian society, such as having the Prime Minister elected by popular vote and establishing a minimum wage and child labor laws.
In 1906, High Fells declared war on Laeral over territorial disputes, with nationalistic feeling high on both sides. This war, known in Laeral as the Border War or the First Fellsian Incursion, ended in bloody stalemate, with over half a million dying on the Laeralian side. Ultimately, both sides backed down, with Laeral gaining some land. This war can be considered foreshadowing as to the horrors of World War I, but it allowed generals on both sides to gain a fuller understanding of modern warfare, meaning that Laeral's experiences in the First World War were less catastrophic than in other nations.
War flared again in 1914, as High Fells allied with the Axis Powers and Laeral joined the Allies. World War I saw many casualties on both sides, notable at the Battle of Riverberg and the Siege of Sillanus. Notably, the Royal High Fellsian Navy humiliated the Laeralian Navy at the Battle of Perin Shoals, causing mass resignations within the Laeralian government. Ultimately, both sides sued for peace in early 1917, and peace was established soon after. Almost two million had died.
Republic of Laeral
Following the chaos of the First World War, many were dissatisfied with the current structure of government. Many of the reforms expressed in the Progressive Movement had not been met. Women were still denied the right to vote, the central government was weak, and labor conditions were appalling. Many lived in abject poverty. Ultimately, unionists, left-wing activists, and dissatisfied veterans staged a revolt, known as the Laeralian Civil War. It began in 1919, and led to the rise of several progressive leaders, including Réne Gramont, Jean-Philippe Salaun, and Élisabeth-Charlotte Cordé, known as the Gang of Five. Their revolution was supported by a majority of the populace, and ultimately succeeded following several months of fighting. Leaders of the revolt assembled in Gaolan, Neidong, to write a new Constitution. While Laeral had been governed as a relatively loose confederation under the Binding Charter, they were determined to reshape Laeralian government. Their work, the Laeralian Constitution, established the new Republic of Laeral. This Republic would have a stronger central government. Suffrage was expanded to all men and women over 22. The legislature consisted of one house, the Assembly of Commons. However, the Assembly of Commons would use both proportional representation and regional constituencies, rather than the previous first past the post system. The leader of the Assembly of Commons would become the Prime Minister, while there would also be a directly elected President. The new government, although unstable at first, ultimately stabilized.
During this time, Laeral was dominated by the so-called Gang of Five, a group of Social Democratic leaders who promoted secularism, modernization, and socialism. While somewhat free and fair elections were held, the Social Democrats kept their hold on power through vote-buying and other dubious practices. In the 1930s, Laeral faced many economic difficulties as the Great Depression impacted Laeralian finance. Once more, many farmers traveled to cities in search of work. Many were unemployed, and famine struck as well. In response, the Social Democrats nationalized several industries.
Second Allied Provinces of Laeral
June 1952 was the date of an attempted coup in Laeral. General Alain Mette and a group of authoritarian-minded military officers attempted to storm government buildings in Laeralsford. The attack there succeeded, with the Prime Minister being executed and the building demolished. Fighting continued for nine months in cities around the country as members of the military sought to take over the government. The coup was defeated in August of that year with the capture and widely-publicized treason trial of General Mette. Following the coup, remembered as the Bloody Summer, the government took steps to decrease the power of the military, including reforming the Laeralian Army into the Laeralian National Security Force. However, the government's weak response to the crisis had shown that the governmental system was flawed. In 1954, delegates from each province gathered in Laeralsford to create a new constitution. This document, known as the Laeralian Constitution, established Laeralian government as it is today. The nation was renamed its original name, the Allied Provinces of Laeral, sometimes known as the Second Allied Provinces to distinguish it from the first. In 1957, Laeral became a member of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM). The government focused on developing domestic industry and modernizing the nation, as Laeral remained a relatively undeveloped and backwater nation. One notable moment was the 1967 Laeralsford Bread Riots, where the end of a government price ceiling on bread led to weeks of riots and protests. In 1980, the so-called 'Undeclared War' took place between Laeral and High Fells, in which a series of assassinations, skirmishes, and diplomatic disagreements took place between the two nations, which was resolved following a series of Laeralian elections. This 'Third Fellsian Incursion', while violent and generally regrettable, did not result in large casualties, and the widespread ground war many predicted did not occur. In 1980, the Socialist Party gained huge majorities in the elections in the so-called "Socialist Revolution" and began to push their left-wing agenda, establishing a number of state-run industries as well as a national health care system. This fundamentally changed the nature of Laeralian government and established it as an important part of Laeralites's lives.
In the late 1980s, Laeral's economy entered a protracted period of growth. A new export-based economic model, centered on exports of electronic equipment and textiles, produced economic prosperity which was well-distributed among the population. The government repaid its debts in full due to massive GDP growth, which reached at its height 35% annually. This economic surge continued until the late 1990s, while the government prudently chose to invest the increased tax revenues into a new national education system, as well as a large fund for future shortfalls. A liberal-leaning government took power in the early 2000s, enacting many social reforms including legalizing same-sex civil unions in 2005. The nation was shaken by the impeachment of President Maurice Fesnau in 2006 following the investigation of a far-reaching corruption scandal, which resulted in the trial and imprisonment of many Socialist Party politicians. President Ganard, of the Laeralian People's Party, took power after a 2006 special election, only to preside over an economic recession in 2007, which damaged the national economy and brought the Progressives into power. Laeral acceded to the World Assembly in 2016. Following the 2018 elections, Liu Mei-han was elected President, at the head of the newfounded, centrist New Democratic party.
Laeral has 33 provinces, or territorial subdivisions. Each of these provinces is self-governing, and shares authority with the federal government. Provincial borders are almost always set based on geographic features, rather than on latitudinal or longitudinal lines. The Laer-Zhonghui River, for instance, is a part of the borders of 10 provinces. The south-to-north flowing Beuvron River also sets the borders of several provinces.
Laeral has a climate similar to Central China, with cold winters and temperate summers. Northern provinces generally have a cool-temperate climate, while southern provinces are warmer. Coniferous and mixed forests exist in much of continental Laeral, while there are broad-leafed forests in southern Laeral. The area known as the 'Riverlands' (areas around the River Laer) is extremely fertile, while other regions of Laeral are less fertile due to the existence of a 'shield' of igneous bedrock which leaches potential nutrients from the soil. As a result, the Riverlands region is more densely populated than other regions of Laeral, and a majority of urban centers are located along it.
Some areas of Laeral are very rainy, such as Aumont or Laeralsford (which each rain roughly one day in three). In most provinces, it snows several times per year. In some provinces, there is often snow on the ground for 4 months a year. Rivers are the lifeblood of Laeral, and rivers such as the Laer, Zhongshui, and Rellis often flow through major cities. These rivers also support a thriving fishing industry, as well as habitat for spawning carp and salmon. Laeral's climate also supports certain forms of agriculture. Rice is grown in many low-lying coastal areas, and fruit is sometimes grown in the interior. Silk is also grown by way of mulberry trees. As for natural disasters, Laeral most often suffers from floods or hurricanes.
Laeral's forests have diminished over the decades, although large swathes of territory remain largely forested. The Golden Larch, Maidenhair (Gingko), Umbrella Pine, and Chinese Plum are all major tree species in Laeral, with the plum blossom (meihua) of the latter being an important Laeralian national symbol. Bamboo also grows in southern portions of Laeral, where it is used as an important manufacturing and construction material.
Large wild animals in Laeral include the brown bear, lynx, 'snow cat' (snow leopard), Chinese mountain cat, and grey wolf, although these are widely hunted and now have a severely curtailed frequency and range. Other wild mammals include the Summer Dog (raccoon dog), the Iduvian red and water deer, the marsh deer (Pere David's Deer), and the marmot. Birds common in Laeral include various cranes, the snowcock, the heron, various swans, and various pigeons.
Laeralian meat raised for cultivation lacks large pasture animals such as cows. Farmers instead focus on keeping geese, ducks, chickens, grouse, pheasant, and pigs, as well as sheep and goats in mountainous areas. Carp are farmed in the Riverlands, and water buffalo and oxen are kept as plow animals.
Laeral has a beautiful environment, with many areas preserved as national parks. Notable attractions can be found in some of the more rural provinces, as well as in some coastal provinces such as Althea. Environmental legislation protects environmentally sensitive areas such as wetlands and old growth forests, and tourism and development are severely restricted into some areas. Some areas, conversely, are heavily developed, such as the Laeralford area and certain sections of Cenefort. Additionally, very strict environmental regulations govern water pollution, as fishing is one of Laeral's largest industries. This was not always the case; until the 1960s, the environment was not a major concern in Laeral. However, pollution remains an issue in many areas of Laeral's old industrial belt.
Laeral has a population of over 79 million people. The fertility rate is 2.34, slightly above the minimum 2.1 rate needed to replenish the population. Life expectancy is high in Laeral: 81.47 years for newborn girls and 79.08 for newborn boys. Ethnic groups present in Laeral include the Arrivée, the Rén, the Gao, and various minority groups. Laeral's ethnic makeup has also been shifted by immigration of minority groups such as Desi, who make up a growing percentage of the population. A large percentage of Laeral's population is mixed-race, largely the result of marriages between Arrivée settlers and Rén natives.
Laeralians tend to be on the small side, with hair ranging from light brown to jet black and pale complexions. They tend to be shorter than global average. Men typically do not grow facial hair. Women of Laeral are generally petite, with long dark hair and elegant features. Additionally, roughly 94% of Laeralites identify as straight. Laeral's population is increasingly aging, as the average life expectancy has increased. This is beginning to place a burden upon senior care services, and the government is currently hard at work on increasing funding for state-run senior care providers.
Mandarin Chinese was historically the primary language of Laeral. When the British arrived, English became a language in Laeral, although it was rarely spoken except by traders and merchants. When the French initially arrived, however, French became a language that all people were required to know, and inhabitants of the colony were discouraged from speaking Chinese. The majority of Laeralites are multilingual, and diplomats and civil servants often learn another language. English is widely taught in schools. Linguistic diversity is a major political focus in Laeral, with government documents required to be in Chinese, French, and English. The Académie Linguistique is a government agency responsible for regulating the practice and expression of language in Laeral.
According to the 2014 Census, Laeral's religious breakdown is: Minjian Faith: 24.3% Atheist: 23.6% Catholic: 17.3% Buddhist: 17.1% Taoism: 6.3% Other: 8.4% The Minjian Faith is a dualistic religion which originated in Laeral.
In general, residents of the more rural, western provinces tend to be more religious than easterners. Laeral has never been as religious as its neighbor of High Fells, and many Laeralian clergy are relatively liberal compared to their foreign counterparts.
The French brought Catholicism as the state religion, but it has caught on more in High Fells than in Laeral. However, some abbeys and convents can be found in Laeral, and practically every town has a Catholic church.
It is important to consider that even many who consider themselves agnostic often obey Laeralian traditions and superstitions, out of respect for Laeralian traditions and heritage. Traditionally, Laeralian culture features many superstitions, often related to the use of numbers. Certain numbers, such as 3, 7, and 12, represent certain positive qualities, while other numbers, such as 4, 11, and 23, are unlucky, because they represent certain negative qualities. Additionally, around the date of the Lunar New Year, superstitious citizens will refrain from cutting objects and using knives, while they will make sure to eat certain traditional foods.
Although Laeral is technically a group of Allied Provinces, modern political power is largely vested in the national government. Each province is headed by a Governor or First Minister, as well as a provincial Legislature, to conduct self-governance. The leader of Laeral is the President of Laeral, who is currently Liu Mei-han. The President serves for 4-year terms, but can only be reelected to the Presidency once. The President serves as Laeral's head of state, although they have some power to delay bills and to speed their passage, assuming that a bill has passed the House of Commons by a 2/3 majority. Other than that, the President's role is only: 1. to name a Prime Minister and assist in government formation, 2. to break ties in any house of the National Assembly, 3. to decide Laeral's vote in international groups such as the World Assembly, 4. to assist in forming Laeral's Cabinet, 5. to serve as the face of Laeral and to represent the nation to foreign powers, 6. to execute various other official duties, 7. to assume more decision-making power in one of several strictly defined times of emergency. The Prime Minister is required to be officially appointed by the President, although the President will sometimes reluctantly appoint a PM selected by the National Assembly who is of a different party than the President, if the National Assembly is controlled by a different party than the President's own. They are responsible for overseeing the National Assembly, and can be voted out of office if they lose a majority in the National Assembly. Their unofficial roles involve ensuring that their legislative agenda is passed. The current Prime Minister is Tanvi Misra.
Laeral has a bicameral legislature known as the National Assembly, consisting of the Assembly of Commons and the General Assembly. The Assembly of Commons and General Assembly must vote with a majority in order to pass a bill on to the other Assembly. The bill needs a simple majority to pass. In the event of a tie, the bill fails. In order for a bill to become law, it must be passed by both Assemblies, although the President has some power to delay a bill. Additionally, a bill passed by a 2/3 majority of the Assembly of Commons does not need to pass the General Assembly if the President chooses to sign the bill. The Commons, consisting of 386 Representatives, is elected nationwide by party-list proportional representation, every two years. Two Delegates from each province are elected to the General Assembly according to a staggered six-year schedule, using instant-runoff voting.
Laeral has numerous major political parties, which tend to alternate power. Governments are almost always formed via coalition, although parties sometimes enter minority governments.
Laeral's judicial branch is smaller than the other branches of government, consisting of a large network of local courts, a Provincial Court for each province, and a National High Court which tries criminal and civil cases appealed from lower courts, following a majority vote of it's 7 Magistrates, including a Chief Magistrate (currently Hua Jiang). Judges and Magistrates serve for 20 years. Meanwhile, the Constitutional Court is the highest court in Laeral, capable of nullifying laws and impeaching politicians. It has the same membership as the National High Court, but is rarely called into use.
Foreign Relations and Military
Laeral is an active member of the World Assembly, and has full embassies with numerous nations. Laeral generally gets along well with members of the International Democratic Union, and generally supports multilateralism. Laeral's Ministry of Foreign Affairs, especially the Foreign Service, are considered very prestigious careers, and pay well. In the current administration, the DFA is a high priority, and is very heavily funded. This funding has been used to hire more ambassadors and establish more international embassies, as well as establishing training and hiring programs at many Laeralian colleges. As a result, Laeral has embassies and consulates in more nations than ever before.
Laeral's military is divided into four branches- the Laeralian National Security Force, the Laeralian Navy, the Laeralian Air Force, and the Laeralian Gendarmerie.
The LNSF totals around 90,000 combat personnel. The LNSF focuses on infiltration and commando missions as opposed to front-line combat. They typically use assault rifles, notably the Laeralian-made A-220c. Their military doctrine concentrates on rapid strikes and flexibility. The LNSF has not been involved in a full-scale war in several decades.
The majority of Laeral's military budget goes to the Navy. Given Laeral's large coastline and the economic importance of Laeral's sea area, Laeral's navy is well funded. The Laeralian Navy has expressed hopes to build an aircraft carrier, although funds have not materialized. In the meantime, the LN focuses on smaller frigates for trade escort and coastal defense duties. The newest of these is the Defiance-class, currently in production.
The Laeralian Air Force is also small compared to the Navy, and consists of around 140 aircraft. They are largely based near the Skodenian border, as well as on some of Laeral's outlying territories. The LAF is also deployed over the Gulf of Laeral and the Laeral Sea.
The Laeralian Gendarmes are responsible for the protection of embassies and consulates worldwide as well as serving as elite special operations soldiers. They generally assign only a few members to even the largest embassies, with around half a squad assigned to each embassy. However, two full squads are assigned to Laeral's office at the World Assembly. Gendarmes, rather than the Army, are generally deployed to small scale trouble spots and secretive missions, and consequently have much more combat experience than the Army.
Laeral's economy is dynamic, thriving, and export-based, featuring above-average levels of government control. The Laeralian economy is dominated by the Information Technology, fishing, and textile industries, with tourism, film, and agriculture close behind. All of those industries receive substantial subsidies, but are also heavily regulated- as are most Laeralian industries. Laeral's economy is doing extremely well, but challenges are posed by high structural unemployment and an aging population. Laeral is currently in a period of economic expansion. Laeral's export-based economy has led to an emphasis on free-trade agreements with foreign nations.
Laeral is a generally secular, multicultural nation with a growing population. The education system is considered among the best in the IDU, featuring an extensive network of public universities, capped by the prestigious National Open University system.
Football (soccer) is the most popular team sport in Laeral, and a football stadium is found in nearly every town or city. LAeral notably hosted the 2018 IDU Football Championship. Organized play is dominated by Ligue 1, which consists of the 20 best teams in Laeral. Play in that league is dominated by Laeralsford's two dueling teams, Laeralsford AC and Ville Laeralsford, as well as teams such as Hanshui and Althea FC. There is also the Ligue Provincial, which is below Ligue 1 and consists of the teams relegated from that league, which make up the 24 second-tier football teams in Laeral. Other popular sports include basketball and handball. Laeral has experienced some success at recent Olympics.