|Huenyan Empire of Xiomera|
Motto: "As The Sun Rises, So Does Xiomera"
The borders of the Huenyan Empire of Xiomera in 2020
|Official languages||Huenyan, English|
|Recognised national languages||Huenyan, English|
|Religion||Huenyan indigenous religion|
|Government||Autocracy, theoretical meritocracy|
• Formation of early āltepētl (city-states)
• Unification of Huenya under Xiomeran rule
• 2020 estimate
• Per capita
|Drives on the||right|
The Huenyan Empire of Xiomera is an autocratic state, styled as a meritocracy, in the International Democratic Union. It borders Legionas and Eiria and fully occupies the landmass known as Huenya in the far southeastern portion of the IDU.
- 1 History
- 1.1 Pre-Imperial era
- 1.2 Era of the Warring States
- 1.3 The Plague of 1372
- 1.4 The Wars of Unification
- 1.5 Consolidation of the Empire
- 1.6 The Era of Stagnation
- 1.7 The First Great Reformation
- 1.8 The First Xiomeran Civil War
- 1.9 The Second Great Reformation
- 1.10 Lōpoch's Expansion
- 1.11 The 1 August Uprising
- 1.12 Assassination of Emperor Topilpopoca, and the ascension of Empress Yauhmi
- 1.13 The Second Xiomeran Civil War
- 2 Geography and climate
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Religion
- 5 Government and legal system
- 6 Military
- 7 Economy
- 8 Infrastructure
The oldest known histories trace the beginnings of what is now Xiomera to roughly 1100 CE. As the ancient histories state, four different tribes came into existence in the land of Huenya: the Itotemoc, the Necatli, the Tepiltzin and the Xiomera. These four tribes began coalescing around nascent city-states which sprung up in four distinct regions of Huenya. In the far west of Huenya, in a dry and inhospitable region, the Necatli formed a state centered around the āltepētl of Necuatexi. To the immediate east of the Necatli, the Itotemoc state formed on a high plain around the āltepētl of Ixtenco. To the east of the Itotemoc, the Tepiltzin formed their state around the āltepētl of Oacalco, in a pleasant green lowland. And in the far east of Huenya, the Xiomerans formed their state in a lushly forested region centered around their āltepētl of Tlālacuetztla.
These pre-Imperial city-states were ruled by dynastic, militaristic tribal leaders known as tlahtohqueh. The city-states expanded rapidly during the period 1200 AD to 1325 AD, forming new settlements and claiming territory. By 1250 AD, most of the land in Huenya had already been claimed by one of the four city-states, leading to rising tension between them.
Era of the Warring States
From 1325 AD to 1372 AD, the four Huenyan tribes would fight both large-scale and small-scale wars for territory and economic gain. They would form alliances, and end them just as quickly, while trading with each other during brief periods of peace. As the four city-states were evenly matched, none of them could gain a significant advantage, or find a way to end the cycle of constant conflict.
The Plague of 1372
In the year 1372 AD, a major plague struck Huenya. The Itotemoc, Tepiltzin and Necatli tribal regions were devastated, losing thousands of lives and finding their militaries essentially crippled. The Xiomeran tribe, however, would be spared the ravages of this plague by an accident of geography and the scheming of a clever ruler.
The city of Zapotlán, under the control of Xiomera, was a natural chokepoint between western and eastern Huenya. It sat astride a series of passes which provided the only possible land entry into Xiomeran lands from the rest of Huenya. The Xiomeran ruler Quiauhticue, upon hearing of the plague spreading in his neighboring rivals, dispatched his warriors to close the passes at Zapotlán. Quiauhticue also set patrols on the waters and coastlines around Xiomera to prevent anyone from entering or leaving.
Quiauhticue’s reason for doing so was twofold: keeping the plague out of his lands, and also preventing any possible aid from leaving his lands to help the other three city-states. When his advisors warned Quiauhticue that this would spell doom for the other Huenyan tribes, the legend claims, Quiauhticue simply raised an eyebrow, looked at his advisors and said, “Yes. It will.”
Quiauhticue’s actions would set the stage for the foundation of an empire.
The Wars of Unification
When the plague finally burned itself out in 1375 AD, the Xiomeran state had been spared its ravages. As the rest of Huenya struggled to piece itself back together, they would face a new threat. Quiauhticue claimed the Mantle of Huītzilōpōchtli, divine right to rule all of Huenya.
Quiauhticue would start by invading the Tepiltzin lands in 1376 AD. Facing minimal resistance, his warriors would occupy the Teplitzin capital of Oacalco within a year, deposing and executing the Tepiltzin tlatoani Cuetzpalzoh. Alarmed by the easy conquest of the Tepiltzin, the Necatli and Itotemoc formed an alliance to try to counter Quiauhticue’s armies. Their alliance would not prove to be enough.
After taking another year to consolidate his gains and forcibly conscript the remaining Tepiltzin armies into his own, Quiauhticue would move next on the Itotemoc. His armies made slower progress against the more martial Itotemoc, reinforced by their even more warlike Necatli allies. But the Xiomerans outnumbered the combined Itotemoc and Necatli armies three to one, and were better provisioned. Within two years, Quiauhticue would seize the Itotemoc capital of Ixtenco, depose and execute the Itotemoc tlatoani Tlacaelel, and force the last remaining Necatli back into their own lands.
By 1380 AD, Quiauhticue was the undisputed ruler of three-quarters of Huenya. The Necatli, however, would prove to be much tougher to conquer. In 1380 and 1382, Quiauhticue would launch invasions of the Necatli state. Both times, his forces were beaten back by a determined Necatli resistance. After the 1382 invasion, Xiomeran armies were able to occupy Necatli lands along the coast. However, the Necatli retreated into their harsh countryside, where they were almost impossible to track or fight. Quiauhticue responded by surrounding the area and cutting off all supply routes, starving the Necatli into surrender. In 1387 AD at the village of Milintica, the last of the Necatli warriors made a desperate charge against the Xiomerans, and were cut down. All of Huenya belonged to Quiauhticue. The Xiomeran Empire was born.
Consolidation of the Empire
The years 1387 to 1515 would be a period of consolidation. The aftereffects of the Plague of 1372, and the following decade of war, left much of Huenya a shattered land. From the Xiomeran point of view, this was actually desirable. While it would mean a long period of difficult economic rebuilding, it also gave the nascent Xiomeran Empire a practically blank slate to establish (or impose, depending on one’s tribe and point of view) the mandates of Tlālacuetztla on the whole of Huenya.
From 1387 until 1515, Quiauhticue and succeeding Emperors would mandate the wholesale revision of Huenyan history, religion and politics to enshrine the Xiomerans as the pinnacle of their new Empire. Itotemoc, Necatli and Tepiltzin laws, literature and cultural artifacts were all ordered destroyed, replaced by Xiomeran ones strictly mandated by the Emperors in Tlālacuetztla. A mandatory two-track system of education was established, with schools called “telpochcalli” established for commoners and more rigorous schools called “calmecac” established for the nobility (and small numbers of especially high-performing commoners). After the formation of the Empire, Xiomera would allow the other tribes to continue selecting their own noble leaders (tlatoani). However, Xiomeran Emperors would install cihuacoatl (supreme judges and administrators) to monitor the other tribes’ tlatoani to make sure they were following the orders of the Emperor.
The period of consolidation was not without its moments of resistance. In 1486, the Itotemoc tlatoani Nenexahual would lead a revolt while the Emperor Ixpan was ill, and would manage to regain independence for a brief period before his forces were overrun by a counterattack after Ixpan died and was replaced by his son, Patonal. In 1511, the Necatli would revolt as well, and Patonal would be forced to send an army to quell them. Both revolts were spurred by resentment from the other tribes at Xiomeran mandates designed to eliminate their power and position.
The Era of Stagnation
The long period of Xiomeran history from 1515 to 1807 is called the Era of Stagnation by Xiomeran historians. There are several reasons for this. Xiomera would become more stable, and its Imperial system more firmly established, during this period. Tribal resistance would also cease to be openly hostile after the failed 1511 Necatli revolt, instead diminishing into a sullen passive resentment and resistance to Xiomeran leadership.
However, while a relative peace and stability would descend on the Xiomeran Empire during this period, it would be marked by a slow but progressive decline. The Xiomeran nobility would become more concerned with position and wealth than in ensuring the continued success of the Empire. Internal struggles for power, and the repeated overthrow of Emperors and lesser tlatoani by rivals, would also plague the Xiomeran Empire during this period. The single biggest factor in the decline of the Empire, however, is generally considered by Xiomeran historians to be the increasing autocracy of the Empire during this period. Xiomeran nobles began levying higher and higher demands on the common people of the Empire, in the form of higher taxation and mandated labor to support the nobles’ lifestyle. While this was occurring, legal and systemic changes would further suppress the lower class. Two major examples of this are the elimination of the “telpochcalli” schools for commoners in 1792, and the elimination of the noble title known as "quauhpilli" in 1796. That title had previously given commoners a chance to ascend to the nobility.
The First Great Reformation
In 1807, the Emperor Achcauhyotl would rise to the Obsidian Throne. Achcauhyotl was the first to recognize the systemic decline that had set root in the Xiomeran Empire, and would seek to reverse it. Up to this point in Xiomeran history, the other three tribes had been largely excluded from power. Achcauhyotl would make several significant reforms, ending the practice of having Xiomeran overseers monitoring the tlatoani of the other tribes and allowing the other tribes to freely select their own leaders without Imperial interference. Achcauhyotl would also create the Great Council of Xiomera, where the other tlatoani would be allowed to advise the Emperor and advocate for the interests of their tribes. Achcauhyotl also re-established schools for commoners, realizing that an uneducated populace would only fuel Xiomera’s continued decline.
Achcauhyotl made these systemic changes in the hopes of getting the other tribes to finally buy into being fully part of the Xiomeran Empire, and also out of the desire to counter the stagnation and corruption that had become so common in the Empire by bringing new blood into its leadership. However, Xiomera would not find these reforms to be enough; the newly empowered leaders of the other tribes soon became as corrupt and power-seeking as their Xiomeran ethnic counterparts. Achcauhyotl would succeed in ending the last resentments and resistance of the other tribes to being part of the Xiomeran Empire. However, it would fall to his daughter to take Xiomera in a new direction – and change its destiny forever.
The First Xiomeran Civil War
In 1838, Achcauhyotl died, leaving no male heirs. Xiomeran laws of succession up to that point had not allowed a female heir to take the Obsidian Throne. On his deathbed, Achcauhyotl ordered a change in the laws of succession to allow his daughter, Camaxtica, to become the first Empress (cihuātlahtoāni) of Xiomera.
This was a controversial decision for many reasons. Achcauhyotl mandated the change to the laws of succession despite the vocal opposition of his Great Council, the religious leaders of Xiomera, and the nobility in general. The Council had wanted the then highest ranking Xiomeran military officer, Tlanextic, to assume the throne and begin a new dynastic line, ensuring a continued unbroken line of male rulers. Achcauhyotl’s decision to ignore them and enthrone Camaxtica instead infuriated the nobility and religious hierarchy.
Camaxtica’s youth and inexperience was also a factor. She was only 19 years old when she became Empress, the youngest ruler before (or since) in Xiomeran history. The nobility fully expected her to bow to pressure and step down once her father died, or to be a pliable and cooperative figurehead on the Obsidian Throne to let them do as they wanted. They would be shocked and angered to discover that Camaxtica was anything but weak. The next twelve years would earn Camaxtica her nickname, “The Lioness of Tlālacuetztla”.
In 1839, Camaxtica’s cihuacoatl, Amoxlotl, discovered a plot by Tlanextic and the tlatoani of the other three tribes to overthrow the Empress. Camaxtica had proven unwilling to bow to their pressure or follow their orders, and the nobles had decided it was time for her to go. Camaxtica would not accept this. She ordered Amoxlotl to arrest the other three tlatoani, and Tlanextic as well. In response, the nobles declared a revolt, with Tlanextic as its military leader and planned replacement for the Empress on the Obsidian Throne.
As war began, in 1840, Camaxtica found herself in a very difficult position. The nobles controlled much of Xiomera’s armies, and with Tlanextic at their head, would pose a huge threat. Camaxtica could only command the loyalty of the Xiomeran tribe’s own soldiers, and even some of them refused to accept a woman as ruler. Camaxtica knew that only gaining the support of Xiomera’s much more vast population of commoners would save her reign, and probably her head as well.
In 1840, therefore, Camaxtica made two major edicts that would change the face of Xiomera forever. With the religious and noble hierarchy in open revolt against her, Camaxtica would declare that both were traitors, and declare that moving forward, the citizens would appoint their leaders, including their tlatoani, based on merit rather than noble worth. Camaxtica also declared that the commoners would have the same rights as the nobility, and that the labyrinthine system of laws designed to keep commoners repressed would be ended. This edict, known as the Xiuhtonal, would set the foundation for the meritocratic technocracy known as Xiomeran Meritocracy that governs the Empire to this day.
By 1840, the commoners were primed and ripe for revolt due to the excesses of the nobility and the elite military class. Camaxtica was the first Xiomeran leader to see this and turn it to her advantage. Styling herself as “The People’s Empress”, and promising to free the commoners from their state of peonage, Camaxtica turned the tables on the nobility by gaining a huge number of people willing to fight for her – many more than the nobles had at their disposal.
However, what Camaxtica gained for herself in 1840 was an army of peasants. Unskilled, many of them illiterate, and with only a basic military training, most of them were no match for the soldiers backing the nobles, who had learned how to fight from their early childhood. Without help, Camaxtica’s vast “army of the people” would be little more than cannon fodder. Camaxtica had an answer for that dilemma also, however.
In 1841, Camaxtica handed down the second great edict that would change Xiomera forever. Known as the Tlanextli, this edict would give Camaxtica’s army the edge it needed. From the late 16th century to 1841, Xiomera had been a closed country. Foreigners were not allowed into Xiomera upon pain of death, and all trade with the outside world was forbidden.
The Tlanextli would change all that. In that edict, Camaxtica threw the doors of Xiomera open to the world. She openly sought the help of foreign powers to train and equip her army with modern weapons. Since she controlled the Xiomeran capital, Camaxtica also controlled the vast Xiomeran treasury. She also offered to allow foreign trade after the war, assuming she won. This was more than enough to convince outside powers to trade with the Empress, and give her the modern army she needed.
The Xiomeran nobles’ armies were still equipped much as their forebears had been – arrows, spears, clubs and axes. The influx of modern weapons, especially firearms and cannon, would shift the balance of power decisively in Camaxtica’s favor. Combined with a decisive numerical advantage, the advent of modern warfare would ensure that Camaxtica would keep her throne. By 1850, the nobles’ revolt was defeated. Tlanextic died in the last battle at Huatl'pa, and the tlatoani who had revolted against Camaxtica were publicly executed.
The Second Great Reformation
With the last threats to her power ended, Camaxtica devoted the rest of her reign to making sure her promises to the people who had won her the Obsidian Throne were fulfilled. She abolished the nobility, and implemented a system of leaders chosen by councils of experts (ihuicatl). She also greatly expanded foreign trade, established diplomatic relations with other lands for the first time, and set up a foreign exchange system where Xiomeran youth would study in other lands and foreign youth could come to Xiomera to study as well. Foreign experts in a variety of specialist fields were also hired in the thousands. Xiomeran leaders would also tour many nations during this period to learn modern ways, leading to a state-led industrialization policy. These efforts fell in line with the Imperial goal of "using knowledge and learning to strengthen the foundations of Imperial rule and Xiomeran prosperity and success."
During Camaxtica's reign, Xiomera would make a rapid transition from being an isolationist, semi-feudal state to becoming a modern, industrialized nation. In line with the rapid changes Camaxtica had brought to Xiomeran politics and society, her reign would also bring about adopting scientific, technological and economic systems from around the world. Adapting these ideas to meet Xiomeran capabilities and traditions, these moves would spark an industrial revolution in Xiomera beginning around 1870. Economic and currency reforms, modernization of the Xiomeran transportation and communications networks, and embracing the ideas of a market economy and free market capitalism would transform Xiomera within a few decades from a mostly agrarian backwater into an economic powerhouse. Xiomera's military would likewise be reformed during this period, adopting modern technology and structuring itself on foreign models to complete the initial reforms begun when Camaxtica created her "army of the people".
At the end of Camaxtica's reign, Xiomera was a thoroughly modern nation ready to face the world. Camaxtica is to this day revered as the greatest ruler in Xiomeran history. There is some debate among historians as to her legacy, though. Some historians believe Camaxtica’s reformer label is undeserved, and that Camaxtica only enacted her changes to Xiomeran society because she had no other choice but to empower the commoners of Xiomera and arm them to fight in her defense. Those historians believe that Camaxtica was more pragmatic than idealistic. Most Xiomeran historians, however, still consider her to have been a great reformer.
Camaxtica’s reign came to an end in 1892 with her death at age 73. No Xiomeran ruler has lived or reigned as long as she did, or accomplished as much during their tenure. Camaxtica is especially honored by Xiomeran women, as her reign definitively freed women from the stigma of being “less capable” than men and ensured full and equal rights for Xiomeran women.
In 1893, the first new ruler in Xiomera's history in 55 years, Lōpoch, took the Obsidian Throne following Camaxtica's death. Lōpoch had a lot to prove. He was a relatively young Emperor, taking the throne at age 36. He was also the first Emperor to follow the legendary (and lengthy) reign of Camaxtica, an extremely tough act to follow. Ascending to the Obsidian Throne from the leadership of the Imperial Army, Lōpoch was the first in what would become a fairly recurring tradition of military leaders becoming Emperors. Eager to establish himself as a strong Emperor, Lōpoch set his sights on the first expansion of the Xiomeran Empire since its inception, and its first military venture beyond the island of Huenya.
Manauia Island, to the south of Huenya, was a conquest that Xiomeran Emperors had often dreamed of, but failed to accomplish. The Emperor Quiauhticue launched an invasion of Manauia Island in 1389; the Emperor Achcauhyotl would try again, in 1820. Both invasions would fail as the inhabitants of Manauia Island, the Teyatia, fought fiercely and refused to bend the knee to overlords in distant Tlālacuetztla.
Lōpoch was determined that his conquest, unlike those of Quiauhticue and Achcauhyotl, would succeed. He had an advantage his predecessors did not: the modern army, equipped with rifles and field artillery, and the supporting warships of the modern navy built by Camaxtica during her long reign. In previous battles, the Xiomeran and Teyatia forces had been roughly equal in technology and tactics. During Lōpoch's Expansion, the situation was severely unequal, in favor of the Xiomerans. The Teyatia, still using weapons and tactics of an earlier age, stood no chance against the Imperial Army and Imperial Navy. Within six months, Manauia Island was firmly under Xiomeran rule. Neighboring Cenotillo Island was also annexed a year later.
The 1 August Uprising
On August 1st, 1977, protests began in the Xiomeran capital of Tlālacuetztla. The protests initially began due to resentment among poorer Xiomerans about the high cost of living. However, the protests quickly morphed into a larger movement demanding democratic reform in Xiomera. Seeing democracies flourishing in many nations around Xiomera, many Xiomerans had begun demanding increased political freedom and civil rights as well. These demands were not welcomed by the Xiomeran government, and were seen as a direct challenge to the relatively new reign of the then-Emperor Xōlotl.
The protests spread to multiple Xiomeran cities from August 3rd to 6th of 1977, and began to hinder Xiomeran commerce. Protesters began to occupy public spaces, block highways and public transport services, and also began to occupy Xiomeran factories. Faced with serious pressure to address the matter decisively, Emperor Xōlotl fired the Security of Security, Paltec, on August 7th, 1977 and ordered the Xiomeran military to end the protests by any means necessary. Beginning in Tlālacuetztla, the Xiomeran army unleashed its full force on the protesters. While Xiomeran media censorship and destruction of records related to the 1977 protests have kept a full accounting of the events from being performed, it is widely believed that thousands of Xiomerans were either killed or imprisoned in order to put down the protests. The brutal backlash by Xōlotl's government to the protests left such a scar on Xiomeran society that no further serious agitation for democracy or protests were launched in Xiomera for over forty years.
Assassination of Emperor Topilpopoca, and the ascension of Empress Yauhmi
On September 8th, 2019, the longstanding Emperor of Xiomera, Topilpopoca, was returning from a trip to the Xiomeran possession of Manauia Island when he was shot in front of the Palace by a disgruntled former Cabinet member, Cētlalhui. Cētlalhui had been fired by the Emperor for incompetence, and sought revenge through the assassination attempt. Topilpopoca would die from his injuries on October 3rd, 2019. On November 3rd, 2019, the wife of Topilpopoca, Empress Yauhmi, was chosen to succeed him in the unique Xiomeran process known as the Great Selection. During her bid for the throne, Yauhmi promised many of her backers that she would rule in the same moderately conservative fashion that her husband had. But upon actually taking power, Yauhmi launched a series of reforms meant to bring greater civil rights, political rights and economic freedom to Xiomera. The reforms left many of her former conservative supporters feeling betrayed, and that she had gained the Obsidian Throne under false pretenses. Worse, many of them began to see Yauhmi's reign as a direct assault on the Xiomeran philosophy known as Xiomeran Meritocracy.
The Second Xiomeran Civil War
Dissatisfied with her reforms, a group of conservative political, business and military leaders planned in secret to overthrow Empress Yauhmi. On April 10th, 2020, at the opening session of a Huenyan Assembly meant to bring greater political openness to Xiomera, the Xiomeran military deposed Empress Yauhmi and placed her in prison, along with the other members of the Huenyan Assembly. A Provisional Imperial Government was formed by the Xiomeran General Staff, staging a complete takeover of the country. Martial law was declared throughout the country, and harsh measures taken to ensure no opposition. Domestic opposition groups were banned, and their members arrested. As a result of the coup, multiple countries, including Laeral, Legionas, Eiria and Kerlile, terminated diplomatic relations with Xiomera and refused to acknowledge the new government. The Xiomeran government retaliated by also terminating diplomatic relations with all four nations, and placing them in a restrictive trade status just short of an outright trade ban.
A government in exile was formed in Laeral, led by Crown Prince Texōccoatl, Yauhmi's son and next in line for the Obsidian Throne. The military junta in Xiomera responded by staging a Great Selection widely regarded as fraudulent, crowning Xochiuhue, son of Emperor Xōlotl, as the Emperor of Xiomera.
Major incidents of violence by the new government soon followed: the storming of the Palace of Flowers on April 10th; the seizure of the Telopec Palace on April 13th; the assassination of the entire Imperial Cabinet on April 19th; the violent arrest of reformist activists on April 22nd in Tlālacuetztla; the forcible overthrow of tribal leaders on April 25th; the violent suppression of protesters by Imperial soldiers and mercenaries from Shuell working for the government on April 28th in the city of Necuatexi; a similar violent suppression in the city of Acalan on May 19th. These violent incidents were followed by the widescale implementation of a plan to segregate people opposed to Xochiuhue's government into camps, along with a brutal campaign to suppress a rebellion by the Teyatia people on Manauia Island.
Despite the violence and threats of the new government, Xiomerans began refusing to obey its orders. On 22 April 2020, the entire 1st Fleet of the Xiomeran Imperial Navy defected to the government in exile in Laeral, marking the first major military defection. On 31 May 2020, a Council of National Reunification and Reconciliation was formed. The CNRR formalized the government in exile, declaring itself as the true and legitimate Xiomeran government.
On 14 July 2020, a "death squad" assassin team from the Agency for Security and Intelligence infiltrated the government in exile's compound in Laeral. While the attack failed to assassinate Texōccoatl as intended, Secretary of State Nōlinyauh, a mentor to Texōccoatl, was killed. In the first formal military clash between the two Xiomeran governments, the Crown Prince ordered the 1st Fleet to carry out a retaliatory airstrike on Emperor Xochiuhue's motorcade near the city of Xochiatipan on 28 July 2020. While the retaliatory strike failed to eliminate Xochiuhue, it did succeed in eliminating General Xōchhuitl, commander of the Imperial Army and one of the principal architects of the coup against Empress Yauhmi. The airstrike is considered to be the official beginning of the Second Xiomeran Civil War, as it marked the formal commencement of military hostilities between Texōccoatl's government and Xochiuhue's.
Geography and climate
Xiomera occupies the entirety of the island of Huenya in the South Xiomeran Sea. The country can be divided into three general regions: a relatively arid far western region, a temperate to humid central plains region, and a humid subtropical region in the far eastern half of the country. While the western half of the country tends to be flat and low in elevation, the geography rises to a high plain in central Xiomera before turning into a series of foothills and mountains in the eastern half of the country. Rainfall is most prevalent from June to September, and varies from minimal amounts in western Xiomera to frequent and often heavy downpours in the eastern half of the country. Xiomera has four distinct seasons; spring, summer, autumn and winter. Spring usually lasts from late March to early May, summer from mid-May to early September, autumn from mid-September to early November, and winter from mid-November to mid-March.
Xiomera has two national parks: the Manauia Preserve on Manauia Island and the Atzaloyan - Montelin Imperial Park north of Tlālacuetztla.
The Xiomeran government, as well as its business sector, have received considerable criticism from around the IDU for their marked disregard for the environment. Programs such as the Manauia Island Project have drawn particular ire from many nations, as well as some Xiomerans.
Xiomera had an estimated population of 51,835,110 as of July 2020. The country is noted for its extremely high population density. Most Xiomerans live in urban areas, as the rapid industrialization of the country fueled migration from rural areas. 81.4% of the total population lived in urban areas as of July 2020.
The capital city, Tlālacuetztla, is the country's largest city and chief industrial center, with a population of 9,904,312. The capital is closely tied to the nearby port of Huitzitaca, Xiomera's largest port. Major Xiomeran cities, Tlālacuetztla in particular, suffer from significant issues related to migration and overcrowding, such as strained infrastructure, housing costs and homelessness. By contrast, the rural areas of Xiomera have major issues stemming from their lack of population. Various Xiomeran governments have tried to reverse the trend of urban migration, and renew the flow of population to other areas, with only limited success.
For most of its history, Xiomera was a highly homogenous society. As the country began to modernize, and assumed a greater economic and political presence on the world stage, that slowly began to change. Today, the national population breakdown is: Xiomeran 38%, Tepiltzin 15%, non-native Huenyan ethnicities 15%, Itotemoc 13%, Necatli 11%, Teyatia 5%, Netlcoatl Islander 3%. "Non-native Huenyan ethnicities" is the official Xiomeran government term for anyone who immigrated to Xiomera, or is descended from someone who immigrated to Xiomera.
The ethnic Xiomeran group has long held dominance over the economic, social and political life of the country, as the "founders" of the Empire. While the country has been mostly stable for the most part, the second-class status that the Tepiltzin, Itotemoc and Necatli ethnic groups have been subjected to throughout the country's history has been the source of continued tension.
Xiomera, in a paradox for a developed nation, has a relatively high fertility rate of 3.903 as of July 2020. The country also has a relatively young population, with the median age of 24.5 years for males and 26 years for females as of July 2020. The Xiomeran cultural preference for larger families, coupled with a longstanding government push to boost the population in order to continue to fuel the consumption-based national economy and repopulate rural areas, are believed to be the reasons for this trend.
Education in Xiomera is a mix of traditional Xiomeran schooling with educational ideas and institutions imported from other countries. All Xiomeran schools are public schools; private schools are not allowed in Xiomera. This stems from traditional Xiomeran tendencies to want oversight over the educational system by the rulers (and later, by the Xiomeran government). Xiomeran schools typically have two branches before one gets to institutions of higher education: the calmecac or the telpochcalli.
The calmecac began in ancient Xiomeran history as schools for the sons of nobles. In these schools, they learned literacy, history, religious rituals, calendrics, geometry, songs and the military arts. They also studied astronomy, theology and statesmanship. This would prepare the nobles' sons for their future roles as leaders, priests or healers. They would also serve as the place of learning for future scholars and artists.
The counterpart to the calmecac, the telpochcalli, taught commoner boys history and religion, agricultural skills and a craft or trade, preparing them for their future lives as workers. After graduation, they would be sent back to their families to begin their working life. Certain telpochcalli specialized in military roles, teaching fighting skills and techniques to particularly athletic or martially-capable boys, before routing them to the army for further training and eventual lives as soldiers.
As Xiomera entered the modern era, the calmecac and telpochcalli evolved into more general-purpose educational institutions. The calmecac became elite schools for highly talented Xiomeran youth in both academic and athletic fields, the equivalent of "gifted and talented" institutions or magnet schools in other countries. They also stopped being exclusive to the sons of the nobility, becoming open both to commoners and to girls as well.
The telpochcalli, for their part, became "standard" public schools for Xiomeran youth of all genders and abilities, teaching a more broad and advanced level of education than in ancient times. In recent years, the line between the calmecac and the telpochcalli has begun to blur with the adoption of curriculum such as STEM education in both institutions.
One important holdover from ancient Xiomeran educational tradition are the special schools reserved especially for children whose attributes make them prime candidates to join the ranks of the Shorn Ones, the elite Xiomeran warriors who serve the royal family. A special kind of calmecac still exists for these young people in the city of Chuaztlapoc, completely separate from the rest of the Xiomeran educational system and run by the Shorn Ones themselves.
Much like the lower levels of education in Xiomera, higher education in Xiomera likewise has two tracks, with two unique types of institutions for each.
The Xiomeran Polytechnic Universities are a system of elite colleges and universities throughout Xiomera, usually located in major cities. As their name indicates, these schools started out as institutes of technology, vocational colleges, engineering schools or schools meant to offer "practical" training. These were the first Western-style colleges in Xiomera, and were launched by the Empress Camaxtica in 1855 as part of her efforts to modernize Xiomera by bringing in Western-style learning. As Xiomera was focused on modernizing its industry and technology during that period, the Polytechnics initially focused solely on those fields.
As time went on, it became clear that Xiomera needed a more diverse set of offerings for its institutions of higher education. Towards the end of her reign, in 1889, Camaxtica launched the other tier of Xiomeran universities, the Imperial University System of Xiomera. The Xiomeran higher educational system was reorganized much along the lines of the the calmecac and the telpochcalli. The Polytechnic Universities became the upper tier of the Xiomeran higher education system, and the Imperial University System a more "accessible" level of education for those who could not gain admittance to the Polytechnics.
Today, the sixteen Xiomeran Polytechnic Universities serve as the pinnacle of Xiomeran education, with an acceptance rate between 4% to 9% of applicants, depending on the institution. The Polytechnics, unlike the Imperial University System, charge for admission, and the cost per school year is not cheap - averaging between 63,000 and 75,000 quetzals per year, again depending on the institution. The Polytechnics, despite their misleading name, no longer focus solely on churning out engineers or training workers. They instead provide an exceptionally broad and high-quality education across all fields, and are often seen as the ticket to admission to the higher echelons of Xiomeran political, social and business life. There has been some discussion by leaders of these institutions about dropping the "polytechnic" title, but tradition, history and affection for the name from alumni have prevented that thus far.
By contrast, the 313 Imperial University System institutions are open admission, and do not charge students to attend. While their lower status has led to some disdain for degrees from IUS institutions among the elite, the far greater accessibility to a college education through the IUS institutions has been a major driving force behind the high levels of literacy (97.9% literacy rate), college completion (55.5% graduation rate), and overall education and learning among the Xiomeran populace as a whole. IUS institutions offer both 2 and 4 year degrees, and thus serve both as a form of community college and full-fledged university for most Xiomerans.
Xiomera tends to be a secular nation, with 67.2% of the population identifying as non-religious. Of those Xiomerans that do follow a specific faith, the breakdown is as follows: 23.9% indigenous Huenyan religion; 3.2% Christianity; 1.5% Islam; 1.4% Buddhism; 1.1% Hinduism; 1.0% Judaism; 0.6% Other. While most Xiomerans no longer follow a religious path, the indigenous Huenyan religion still serves as a source of legitimacy and authority within Xiomeran society. The indigenous Huenyan religion also still serves as a source of cultural identity and pride within Xiomeran society, with even many "non-religious" Xiomerans still believing at least some aspects of it.
The Huenyan indigenous faith is a polytheistic religion based around a pantheon of major and minor deities. The most significant deities are Tlaloc (rain god, deity of water); Quetzalcoatl (god of wind, the link between the earth and the sky), Tezcatlipoca (deity of cosmic struggle) and Huītzilōpōchtli (deity of the sun, and god of war). Huītzilōpōchtli serves as the preeminent deity in the Huenyan religion and is also linked to the Xiomeran ruling lineage. Any Xiomeran Emperor or Empress must be seen as having the "mandate of Huītzilōpōchtli" in order to rule.
Government and legal system
Xiomera's government describes the country as a "meritocratic technocratic monarchy". The Xiomeran system of government, like the name it has given itself, is both confusing to outsiders and not always what it seems.
Xiomeran political offices are all held by individuals chosen by councils of legal, political, scientific, cultural, economic and educational experts. These councils are known as ihuicatl. The ihuicatl are the backbone of the Xiomeran system. Every municipality, region and tribal domain has an ihuicatl that is responsible for appointing that political unit's principal leader (tlatoani) every six years. There was also a national ihuicatl that is responsible for choosing an Emperor or Empress to rule the country, in a process known as the Great Selection. While most positions in Xiomera are still filled by this traditional system, in 2020 Emperor Xochiuhue announced that no further Great Selections would be held, essentially cementing his status as an Emperor for life.
The members of the ihuicatl are themselves chosen every six years in a collective "vote" by members of their fields. This is the closest thing to an "election" in Xiomera. 500 people typically sit on an ihuicatl responsible for major appointments; smaller units of population such as regions and municipalities will have smaller ihuicatls.
The tlatoani is the highest leader in a political unit of Xiomera. The term is most commonly used to describe the leader of an āltepētl (the equivalent of provinces or states in other countries). Each of the four original tribes of Huenya has its own altepetl, and thus its own tlatoani. The tlatoani over an āltepētl typically holds powers roughly equivalent to a governor of a state or province in other countries.
The cihuacoatl is the second in command to the tlatoani of a Xiomeran political unit. They serve as a supreme judge and administrator, and also handle the financial affairs of their political unit.
The Xiomeran judicial system consists of multiple courts with differing levels of jurisdiction. Trial courts (teccalli) hear civil and criminal cases. Appellate courts (tlaxitlán) review appeals from the teccalli. The cihuacoatl, as chief justice, reviews appeals from the tlaxitlán. The cihuacoatl determines the verdict and his decision can only be appealed to the huey tlatoani and cihuacoatl of all Xiomera. The two serve as a final "supreme court" of appeal and are not obligated to hear any appeal from lower courts. If they do accept an appeal, their ruling is final. This "supreme court" also has absolute right to intervene at any time with a final verdict on any cases or appeals that they deem "vital to the Imperial interest."
The Xiomeran Court System maintains its own constabulary that works with local and national police to serve summons and make arrests for noncompliance with those summons.
While judges are appointed, they must also complete an apprenticeship program that involves observing court proceedings and taking tests to measure their knowledge of Xiomeran law. Judges are retained or removed from office on the same six-year cycle as all other Xiomeran officials.
The Xiomeran judiciary is policed by a special branch of the national civil service to ensure honesty, ethical practice and impartiality. Xiomeran judges who breach legal or ethical lines are removed from office, and can also face fines, imprisonment, or even execution for severe breaches of the law.
In most other respects, the Xiomeran legal system is similar to other countries. Double jeopardy is not allowed, trials are required to occur in a timely fashion, and the accused have the right to have attorneys assist them. All cases are tried publicly, and under oath. The main difference from other countries is that trial by jury does not exist in Xiomera.
The Xiomeran Imperial Armed Forces are the defense force of Xiomera. The Armed Forces fall under the command of the Secretariat of Defense, which in turn falls under the command of the Emperor and the Great Council of Xiomera. Civilian control of the military is maintained via this chain of command. Xiomera maintains a large and well-funded military (3.3% of GDP in 2019).
The Xiomeran Imperial Army composes the ground forces of the Xiomeran military, with the exception of special forces. The total Army troop strength is 495,000 troops. It operates 2,500 tanks, 2,800 APCs, 5,800 artillery pieces, 200 rocket launchers, 60 guided missile systems, and 700 attack and transport helicopters.
The Xiomeran Imperial Navy is the naval defense branch of the Xiomeran military, and is also responsible for maintaining shore defenses such as artillery, anti-air and anti-ship missiles, and shoreline defensive installations. The Xiomeran Navy has 70,000 total personnel, operating a 205-ship fleet, 190 mobile ASBMs and various shore defenses.
The Xiomeran Imperial Air Force is the aerial defense branch of the Xiomeran military, and is also responsible for the Imperial Strategic Rocket Corps and Imperial space-based operations. The Xiomeran Air Force has 60,324 total personnel, operating 302 fighter aircraft, 72 strategic bombers and various support aircraft.
The Xiomeran Special Forces consist of two groups: the Eagle Warriors (cuāuhmeh) and the Jaguar Warriors (ocēlōmeh). The Eagle Warriors are elite infantry, and the Jaguar Warriors elite armor and artillery forces. The two forces’ roles stem from historic places that these groups previously held in Xiomeran society. They trace their lineages back to ancient Xiomeran history, and are held in high esteem in Xiomera. The two forces work in concert on the battlefield, in a modern application of the concept of combined arms to ancient warrior societies.
In addition to the above special forces, a third group known as the Shorn Ones (cuachicqueh) exists above even the Eagle Warriors and Jaguar Warriors. The Shorn Ones represent the absolute best soldiers Xiomera can produce, and serve as the palace guard at the Palace of Flowers, the Imperial residence, and as a personal guard for the Empress. They are also utilized for the toughest missions that require the absolute best Xiomeran military capability. They can be identified by the fact that their heads are shaven, except for a single long braid over their left ear, and for the face paint they wear (half red and half yellow). The total strength of the Xiomeran Special Forces is 15,000 Eagle Warriors; 15,000 Jaguar Warriors; 3,000 Shorn Ones.
In the past decade, the Xiomeran military has created two "legions" of irregular forces. The Patriot Legion is the first of these "irregular" forces created. It was created in 2015, and allows those incarcerated in Xiomeran prisons an opportunity to repay their debt to society through military service. The International Legion was created in 2019. Its role is to recruit foreigners into the service of the Empire, with special emphasis on recruiting highly skilled individuals with police or military backgrounds. Membership in the International Legion is nominally open to anyone between 18-40 who can pass the extremely tough training and fitness standards of the Legion. While Xiomera does not publish numbers for their irregular forces, the Patriot Legion is believed to have roughly 5,000 troops, and the International Legion roughly 3,000 troops.
Xiomera has been rumored to have a nuclear weapons capability since 1987, and many experts have noted that its arsenal of ballistic missiles would be capable of carrying a nuclear warhead as well as the conventional warheads that are already known to exist. The Xiomeran Government has never formally confirmed a nuclear capacity, but has also never formally denied it, either. Rumors also continue to exist that Xiomera may possess other WMDs as a last-ditch defensive measure.
The Xiomeran military utilizes solely domestic-produced weapons systems, mainly produced by the Coatōn Corporation and Coltec Corporation.
Xiomera is a developed country with a high-income economy and is one of the most industrialized economies in the IDU. Xiomera is especially respected for the quality of its manufactured goods and electronics. The Xiomeran economy is geared both around domestic consumption and export to other nations. Since its mass adoption of modern manufacturing and industralization in the 1850s, Xiomera has seen itself as the "nation that makes things" and the "store to the world". The modernization of the Empire, which began during that period, has leveraged massive investments in education to transform the country from a backwater state to an economic powerhouse in a remarkably short period. The Xiomeran economy, by its very nature, is highly dependent on international trade.
The Xiomeran economy is dominated by massive industrial conglomerates known as necuiltonolli. These huge corporations often have highly complex, interlocking business relationships which make it extremely hard to ever break them up or regulate them. Xiomeran governments, for the most part, engage in little to no oversight of the business community, believing in a mantra of "totally free trade". The Second Xiomeran Civil War was sparked, in part, by the efforts of the Empress Yauhmi to begin more closely regulating, and taxing, the Xiomeran business community. More recently, the souring trade relations between Xiomera and other nations in the aftermath of Emperor Xochiuhue's rise to power have begun to alarm some Xiomeran businesspeople.
Xiomeran capitalism has sometimes been described as "predatory" and even "rapacious", particularly by critics from less capitalist countries and from opposition groups within Xiomera itself. The motto "competition is everything, everything is competition", coined by the Emperor Achcauhyotl, has since been widely adopted as the mantra of the Xiomeran business community.
Xiomera has a highly developed and advanced transport network. The country maintains an extensive network of high speed railways, highways, air routes, bus routes and ferry services. The national transit service, Zaca, provides frequent rail service to all major Xiomeran cities, as well as most regional centers. Bus lines connect smaller cities and rural areas to the rail network. The nation's largest airport, Ocatzcal International Airport in Tlālacuetztla, served 58 million passengers in 2016. There are also airports in most large to medium-sized Xiomeran cities, as well as heliports. The national carrier, Xiomeran Imperial Airways, served over 26,800,000 passengers, including almost 19,000,000 international passengers, in 2016 and operated 290 international routes. Smaller airlines, such as Tlaxōzal Airlines and Tliquet Air, serve the domestic market.
Despite its environmentally unfriendly reputation, Xiomera is a major producer of nuclear power. 31% of the nation's electricity is derived from nuclear power.
Xiomera has an extensive and well-developed high-speed Internet infrastructure, with public wi-fi networks deployed in most major Xiomeran cities. Much of the country's economy and culture is centered around online technology. While online access is widespread in Xiomera, the frequent monitoring of online communications and censorship practiced by the government is often seen as a hindrance.